Conflict; It can be defined as “the transformation of differences of opinion between individuals, interest groups and societies, which are based on the differentiation of concepts such as religion, language, race, and ideology, into struggle”. The Turkish Language Association defined conflict as “the first step of the use of force between armed groups with different views is considered the beginning of the conflict”.
It is the classical form of war that states do with vehicles that are in their weapon inventories, that can be measured and that are not weapons of mass destruction. Although it is seen that the air, land and naval forces of the states are used altogether in conventional warfare, where there is close contact with the enemy lines in general, the use of one of these central command units is sufficient for conventional warfare.
Sources: Ebru Canan Sokullu - Types of War, George H. Quester -Deterrence before Hiroshima: The Airpower
Background of Modern Strategy
Cross-Border Operations / Off-Border Operations
Cross-Border Operations: In cross-border operations, it means that the armed forces of a country expand its fight against terrorist groups that threaten and target its country to include the territory of another country. Not only is it sending troops cross-border by land, air operations are also seen as cross-border operations.
In short, operations carried out to continue the armed struggle with terrorist groups that pose a threat to their country beyond national borders are called cross-border operations.
Sources: Israel Nyaburi Nyadera & Michael Otieno Kisaka - Contemporary conflicts, cross‐border military operations, and the declining role of the UN: The case of Turkey and Saudi Arabia