Key Takeaways in Europe:
- Geographically, the terrorist incidents are concentrated in the eastern parts of both Turkey and Ukraine.
- Eastern Ukraine has been an active zone of conflict since the start of separatist uprisings in the Donbas region, the aftermath of the violent protests that took place in the capital in 2014. (Attacks that occurred in the east of Ukraine in April were more than the number reported in this report, however, this report only considers the ones that reflect terrorist characteristics rather than being a part of the battle. Therefore, only attacks against civilians and unknown targets are included in this report.) In this month, only harassing fire was utilized as a method of engagement.
- Turkish Armed Forces launched a new wave of counter-terrorism operations (Operation Claw-Lightning and Thunderbolt) towards PKK’s strongholds in northern Iraq. Besides, operations conducted since 2018 and utilization of high-tech military platforms, remarkably UAVs & UCAVs, by TAF seems to have limited PKK’s capacity to conduct qualified attacks. Facing the risk of losing control over its strongholds in Northern Iraq, the PKK adopts low-cost and risk-free attacks by employing mini- drones packed with explosives, which often cause only material damage. Only two attacks have occurred, one was an ambush and the other one was an armed reaction, and both targeted civilian/social spheres.
Key Takeaways in Asia:
- In Afghanistan, the Taliban have conducted 7 attacks against civilian/social spheres and their attacks were concentrated at the northern and eastern rural territories of the country. In Pakistan, however, all the attacks were conducted in urban settings by the Balochistan Liberation Army terrorist organisation. The attacks were mainly concentrated on highly urbanised territories around Gwadar and Karachi ports.
- In India, Naxal-Maoist Rebels and Tritya Prastuti Committee have conducted a total of 6 attacks. The attacks have taken place in rural settings of the states of Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Jharkhand. These states are known to be active zones of these Maoist terrorist organisations and there is a substantial number of people, who are sympathetic to the causes of these terrorist organizations, residing in these states.
- Half of the attacks were against civilian/social spheres and the other half were against tactical/operational police units. As a method of engagement, a variety of attack types such as IED attacks, armed reactions, assassinations, harassing fires, and gang attacks were utilized.
- In Indonesia and the Philippines, armed reactions were the most widely used method of engagement and it was followed by assassinations. The attacks in the Philippines were solely conducted by the New People’s Army in rural settings and Indonesia, all the attacks were conducted in rural settings by the West Papua National Liberation Army, as well. The targets were several in both states, however, while the attacks in Indonesia were concentrated in the Papua region, the attacks in the Philippines were widespread over most of the islands.
Key Takeaways in Middle East:
- Geographically the attacks in Iraq were concentrated at the north of Baghdad and roughly along the river of Tigris in rural settings. A significant number of attacks were conducted by DAESH, however, at the top northern mountainous zones, PKK was active. A great number of attacks have targeted security personnel and the rest targeted civilian/social spheres. A variety of attack types were utilized but the most widely used ones were armed reactions and IED attacks.
- In Syria, attacks were spread over the northern side of the country above the capital Damascus and most of the attacks were conducted in rural settings. In central and eastern Syria, DAESH is still highly active, however along the border with Turkey, the attacks were conducted by YPG.
- In general, civilian/social spheres were the most attacked target type and all the attacks conducted by YPG in this month have targeted civilian/social spheres. The second most attacked target type was militia/terrorists/ non-state armed groups. This indicates that Syria continues to be a zone of multifaceted conflict that does not only take place between state and non-state actors. A great variety of attack types were utilized, however, IED and VBIED attacks were the most widely used ones.
- In Yemen, attacks were geographically concentrated in Western Yemen and along the border between Houthi rebels and Yemeni security forces. The attacks were conducted by AQIM and Al-Qaeda in rural settings against tactical/operational military units and militia/terrorists/non-state armed groups. Yemen, just like Syria, is a conflict zone between non-state armed groups. As a method of engagement, only armed reaction was utilized.
Key Takeaways in South America:
- Terrorist incidents in Colombia are distributed into two areas. FRC, as a mainly rural-based terrorist organization is active in the rural territories below and above capital Bogota and the terrorist incidents are concentrated at the interception zones between FRC, ELN, and the government.
- Some of the attacks above the capital were conducted by ELN. The most of these attacks have taken place in rural settings against military and police units and their infrastructure. Most utilized types of attacks are armed reactions, raids, and ambushes.
- In Venezuela, the attacks were solely conducted by FRC and they were concentrated in rural settings in the south of Venezuela. They have targeted only military units in the region
Key Takeaways in Africa:
- Geographical distribution of all the attacks indicates that terrorist incidents in Africa are mainly distributed in three regions: The West Sahel Region, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Horn of Africa.
- With 126 attacks in total, the Horn of Africa encounters the major portion of all the incidents in Africa. Only one attack among all these has occurred in Kenya and the other 125 took place in Somalia and almost all the terrorist attacks in Somalia were conducted by Al-Shabab.
- The attacks were majorly concentrated in Southern Somalia, in the rural and urban surroundings around the capital, Mogadishu. In comparison with the whole continent, the majority of the attacks in urban settings have taken place in Somalia. Also, the target types and attack types data on the Horn of Africa indicate that armed reactions, assassinations, and raids were the main choices of attacks and targets were mainly tactical operational military units/facilities and civilians. Therefore, the Horn of Africa has experienced an extensive gunfight between military units and Al-Shabaab terrorist organization.
- In comparison with previous months, the situation maintains its graveness and Southern Somalia is still a region suffering heavily from terrorism.
- In the Sinai Peninsula, the attacks were solely conducted by DAESH in rural settings. The majority of attacks were conducted by IED explosives, and the targets were almost evenly divided as tactical/operational military units and civilian/social spheres.
- In the West Sahel Region, the attacks were mainly perpetrated in rural settings. Civilian/social spheres were the main targets and were followed by tactical/operational military units. Raids, IED attacks, and armed reactions are the top three common attack types in the region, however, the most distinguishing issue about the West Sahel Region is its kidnapping rates. Roughly, 16% of all the attacks were kidnappings and it affected 40 people. Boko Haram and Dan Na Ambassagau resort to such actions in the region, and as it used to be since January 2021, the region maintains to be the one that suffers mostly from kidnappings.